Wednesday, 7 March 2018

Heutagogy: the art of self-directed learning

The Difference Between Pedagogy, Andragogy,
And Heutagogy (Heick, 5 November 2015)
What do you know about heutagogy? I hadn't even heard about this a few months ago, until a travelling expert in this area came to do a seminar at my institution. Then I learned a few things.

Heutagogy was defined in 2000 by Hase and Kenyon as "self-determined learning" and is based on the idea of knowledge-sharing over knowledge-hoarding. It picks up Argyris's idea of double-loop learning, and reflecting about the how and the why of our learning (2002). I like that. Research projects and theses are heutagogic.

Heutagogy is a step beyond andragogy (adult learning; Knowles, 1980), and into self-reflective, -directed and -determined learning. Learners not only build the plan, they negotiate their own path, outline the field, and map the territory (Heick, 5 November 2015; Blaschke, 2012; Argyris, 2002; Hase & Kenyon, 2001; Hase & Kenyon, 2000). Heutagogy is a philosophical approach that aims to help learners self-develop as problem-solvers, trouble-shooters and action-takers making continuous improvement: those who can work developmentally in learning organisations.

The idea is that the learner drives the learning completely, independently, and does not follow a linear route. The learner seeks self-actualisation (Maslow, 1962). The 'teacher' is simply a guide on the side (King, 1993); a facilitator.

It is quite an interesting idea. I will come back to it in a later post. 


  • Argyris, C. (2002). Double-Loop Learning, Teaching, and Research. Academy of Management Learning & Education, December, 1(2), 206-218
  • Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(1), 56-71.
  • Blaschke, L. M., & Hase, S. (2016). Chapter 2 - Heutagogy: A holistic framework for creating Twenty-First-Century self-determined learners. In B. Gros,  Kinshuk, & M. Maina's (Eds) The Future of Ubiquitous Learning. Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin  (pp. 25-40) 
  • Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2001). Moving from Andragogy to Heutagogy in Vocational Education. In Research to Reality: Putting VET Research To Work. Proceedings of the 4th Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA), in Adelaide Australia, 28-30 March 2001. 
  • Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. ultiBASE In-Site, December, ISSN 1328-1798. Retrieved 15 January 2018 from
  • Heick, T. (05 November 2015). The Difference Between Pedagogy, Andragogy, And Heutagogy. Retrieved 13 November 2017 from
  • King, A. (1993). From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side. College Teaching, Winter, 41(1), 30-35. 
  • Knowles, M. S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From pedagogy to andragogy. USA: Prentice Hall 
  • Maslow, A. H. (1962). Toward a psychology of being. USA: D Van Nostrand Company Inc.


  1. Thanks, Corio Vet Hospital, for taking the time to let me know. So sorry not to have acknowledged your comment sooner!


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