Monday, 27 June 2022

Should we cite each sentence?

TECHNICALLY, when using APA, we are supposed to cite each sentence. Practically, however, where an entire paragraph is solely based on the work of a single author, we are probably 'safe' to simply cite at the end. Doing so is less repetitive, so is easier to read. An example: 

Self-report inventories can "be a form of self-talk", as while we may be reporting "what [we] believe is true about [our] situations [, what we report] are perceptions and may not be reality". We can delude ourselves via our internal narrative. Further, perception becomes our own reality, as "regardless of how real the barrier is, [our] self-talk can have a dramatic impact on how [we] view [our]selves, as well as on [our] options and how [we] make career decisions" (Osborn & Zunker, 2016, p. 133).

However, writing a paragraph from a single author source is not considered 'good' academic writing, nor is using lots of quotes. As academics we need to be careful about encouraging this, because it means that our students are are not being encouraged to create a synthesis of their own ideas evidenced by multiple authors/sources, but are being 'derivative' (McConnachie, 2022). We would be better to construct a paragraph from more sources, trimming quotes, as follows:

Self-talk has been defined as a “dialogue [through which we interpret] feelings and perceptions, regulates and changes evaluations and convictions, and [give ourselves] instructions and reinforcement” (Hackfort & Schwenkmezger, 1993, p. 355). Self-report inventories can be categorised as self-talk (Osborn & Zunker, 2016)When we undertake self-reporting tools, we may think we are reporting who we truly we are, but our perceptions are likely to be skewed through a level of either conscious or unconscious self-delusion (Osborn & Zunker, 2016), reminiscent of the JoHari Window (Luft, 1982). Self-talk as an internal, personal narrative may critique us more heavily than outside voices (Billan, 2022), which can negatively skew our self-view. Our perception IS our own reality; our self-talk impacts how we see ourselves, our choices, and our personal career decision-making processes (Osborn & Zunker, 2016).

Lastly, we also need to remember that we should not give away our power; so we should avoid leading-off a paragraph with the author name, such as "Osborn and Zunker say that self-report inventories are "a form of self talk" (2016, p. 133)"... which places the author at the centre, instead of our own ideas being the primary focus.



Billan, R. (2022). Keynote Address | Allocution: Redefining Resilience [video]. CANNEXUS22 Virtual Conference 25 January - 5 February.

Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1993). Chapter 14: Anxiety. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology (pp. 328–364). Macmillan Publishing Company.

Luft, J., & Ingham, H. (1961). The Johari Window: a graphic model of awareness in interpersonal relations. Human Relations Training News, 5(1), 6-7.

McConnachie, J. (26 May 2022). Using quotations effectively.

Osborn, D. S., & Zunker, V. G. (2016). Using Assessment Results for Career Development (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.

No comments :

Post a Comment

Thanks for your feedback. The elves will post it shortly.