Friday, 24 July 2020

Integrating Assessment Results Model

Osborn and Zunker say: "Drawing from the works of Cronbach (1984), Anastasi (1988), and Super, Osborne, Walsh, Brown, and Niles (1992), Zunker conceptualized a model for using assessment results in developmental career counseling as having [five] major steps [which...] are Analyzing Needs, Establishing the Purpose of Testing, Determining the Instruments, and Utilizing the Results. The process is cyclical and continuous. One may return to the first step during career exploration, after a period of being employed, or after completing an educational/training program" (2016, p. 4).

So if we think about the steps in turn:
  1. Analysing Needs: First we develop a relationship with our client - establish the counseling relationship - and ensure we can clearly hear the client's story, understand what their lifestyle dimensions are, and help the client to decide their present needs
  2. Establishing Purpose: Then we help the client to refine their purpose or outcomes for the work we are doing together
  3. Determining Instruments: Once we know the client's purpose, we can then start considering the type and style of instruments that might be useful and appropriate for the client
  4. Utilising Instruments: Then the client takes the instruments. We then carefully consider the and discuss the assessment results, and how those results fit with the client's identity
  5. Making a Decision: the client may feel they know enough to move on to their next steps, such as work or training decisions; or the process of discussing the assessment results may have raised more questions, or changed the client's purpose.
This is a very simply model, but it is very useful for framing what to consider with a client, and in what order.


  • Reference: Osborn, D. S., & Zunker, V. G. (2016). Using Assessment Results for Career Development (9th ed.). Cengage Learning.

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