Monday, 9 August 2021

How to reference an Earl

OK: who knows the answer to this question? When I have a book by the Earl of Carnarvon and Howard Carter, how do I APA format the author names for my reference? Very hard to list "Carnarvon, E.": it makes no sense. And WHICH Earl of Carnarvon? The second? The fourth? The seventh? 

The Oxford University Press instructions for contributors to bibliographies suggests that we use the most commonly known name: "In text and annotations, use the common form of names that will be most familiar to English-speaking readers". However, this only relates to attribution within the body text, not how an author name is formatted in the reference list. 

In general, titles are dropped from author names in APA. So, can I assume then that I would use the 'normal' name of the fourth Earl of Carnarvon, which is George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert? Thus Herbert, G. E. S. M., & Carter, H.?

That is what I have gone for, while waiting to hear back from APA Style. Tricky.

Let me know if you have struck one of these type of entries, and what your solution has been!



  • APA (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.). American Psychological Association
  • Herbert, G. E. S. M., & Carter, H. (Eds.) (1912). Five Years' Explorations at Thebes: A Record of Work Done 1907-1911 by the Earl of Carnarvon & Howard Carter. Oxford University Press. 
  • Oxford University Press (2012). Instructions for Oxford Bibliographies Authors.

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